@Andi So I’ve tried a few different things, and I think I narrowed down the problem to the version of Onsen UI that I was including in my project.
When I created a new project using the Navigation template, everything looked good on the mobile debugger and the cloud based. Then I installed the Onsen UI package with the newest 2.0 RC and it broke on mobile. When I moved it back to version 1.3.17 it worked on the mobile debugger.
So, it looks like the problem is with the newest 2.0 RC of Onsen UI.